|Dominated by the Dinaric range of mountains, which parallel
the Adriatic Coast in a northwesterly-to-southeasterly direction, Bosnia
is located in the west central region of former Yugoslavia and consists of
four distinct regions.
Northern Bosnia contains over 70% of the cultivated land in the former republic and is characterized by low-lying plains along the Sava River border with Croatia and the Drina River border with Serbia. This landscape changes to rolling hills and isolated mountains as one moves south. Central Bosnia, which contains the capital, Sarajevo, is a mountainous region with a number of peaks over 2,000 meters. There is low population density outside the cities. A region of bare limestone ridges and not very fertile valleys encompasses westem Bosnia and upland Hercegovina. Lowland Herzegovina, cut through by the swift-flowing green Neretva River, holds the regional capital of Mostar, and Bosnia and Hercegovina finds a toehold on the Adriatic at the rocky beaches of Neum.
Climate in Bosnia and Hercegovina ranges from humid sumrners and harsh winters in the north and central regions to a Mediterranean climate in lower Hercegovina.